Livestock - Peak Daily Requirements.

Cattle in lactation: 70 litres/head

Sheep: 6 litres/head

Cattle - dry: 45 litres/head

Lambs: 1-2 litres/head

Grazing horses: 35 litres/head 

Calves: 25 litres/head

Sows: 25 litres/head

Working horses: 55 litres/head

Poultry per 100 birds: 30 litres

 

Peak Drinking Water Flows Required.

Cattle in lactation: 12-14 litres/head/hour

Cattle-dry: 8-10 litres/head/hour

Sheep: 0.4 litres/head/hour

Pipes-Maximum Recommended Working Pressures

 

Type
Size
(mm)
 
Working Pressure
 
     
(metres)              (feet)
PVC and high-density Polythene
All sizes
B
C
D
 
60                     200
90                     300
120                   400
 
PVC only
20, 32, 50
E
F
 
 
150                   500
180                   600
 
 
Low-density polythene
15
20
25
32
40
50

No classes

90                    300
80                    250
65                    215
50                    165
45                    150
35                    115
Galvanised wrought iron All sizes Medium cut 180                   600

Pipes Flow Rates

Rule of thumb: Doubling pipe size will increase flow rate by 4-6 times

Drainage

Minimum required falls, for pipelines to remain self-clearing with a water velocity of 0.45 m per second, are indicated below:

Pipe diameter
Clay tile
Corrugated plastic
100 mm
0.3% (i.e. fall of 0.3m in 100m)
0.7% (i.e. fall of 0.7m in 100m)
150 mm
0.2% (i.e. fall of 0.2m in 100m)
0.3% (i.e. fall of 0.3m in 100m)
 
 

Irrigation Requirements

Requirements depend on soil type, rainfall, and crop

Broad guidelines: These are guidelines only:

  • High rate: 36 cu m per ha day (1 acre inch per week)
  • Average rate: 27 cu m per ha day (125 gal per acre per hour)

Some useful formulas and conversion factors: The details below are useful in working out irrigation coverage, pump power, and flows:

  • 25.4 mm on 1 ha = 254.6 cu m
  • 1 mm on 1 ha = 10 cu m
  • 1 kPa = 0.102 m head
  • 1 cu m = 1000 litres

Formula for calculating loads on a pump

 
Water power (kW)= litres/second x m head x relative density
                                                        102.04

kW to drive pump= waterpower (kW) x 100
                                efficiency (%)

Pump efficiency (%)= waterpower (kW) x 100
                                   input (kw)

 

BE INFORMED AND ENJOY RURALFIND.